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Margaret Findlay Ph.D.



Dr. Findlay has been president of Bioremediation Consulting since its founding in 1991. She has over fifteen years experience in biodegradation research and direction of treatability laboratories, as well as in site remediation. Dr. Findlay currently specializes in design and execution of laboratory microcosm studies of ground water containing chlorinated solvents. As an editor of Bioremediation Journal, she maintains a broad overview of the field of environmental remediation.

Biodegradation of Chlorinated Solvents. Dr. Findlay directed and participated in research projects funded by industrial clients, as well as by USEPA and National Science Foundation, on the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, both by anaerobic reductive dechlorination and by aerobic degradation by methanotrophic bacteria. The work resulted in elucidation of biodegradation pathways, development of simplified laboratory treatability protocols, and conceptual designs for bioreactors and in situ groundwater treatment. She was co-author of the first paper on methanotrophic degradation of TCE and related ethenes, and a paper on a microcosm test method for evaluating natural attenuation of PCE by anaerobic bacteria.

Hydrocarbon Biodegradation. Dr. Findlay has conducted research and treatability studies on biodegradation of petroleum and coal tar hydrocarbons, designed soil treatment and compost processes for site remediation, and managed field monitoring programs. Dr Findlay worked with a major petroleum company to design a petroleum sludge composting project which received a commendation from the State of Utah. She also teamed with a major petroleum refinery to design and manage the soil treatment process for the first successful closure of a refinery landfarm. Dr. Findlay conducted bench scale research for the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum to determine the fate of petroleum spilled on soil. It was shown, using 13C, that during biodegradation a portion of the petroleum carbon is covalently incorporated into the soil organic matter. Biodegradation of 14C-benzo(a)pyrene to 14CO2 was also demonstrated.

Education, Affiliations and Employment

Ph.D. Chemistry. University of Illinois at Urbana, 1970. (minor in microbiology)
B.A. Chemistry. Syracuse University, 1963. (minor in biology)
Bioremediation Journal (editorial board). American Chemical Society (member)

1991 - present Bioremediation Consulting Inc, President
1989 - 1991 Bioremediation Systems Division, ABB-Envir Services, Wakefield MA. Director of Treatability Laboratory.
1984 - 1989 Bioremediation Systems Division, Cambridge Analytical. Director of Research and Development, Senior Scientist.

Selected Publications
Chlorinated Compounds:
Findlay, M. et al. (2002). “Optimizing Reductive Dechlorination in a Large-Scale In Situ Bioremediation System”. Third International Conference, Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. Monterey, California, May 20-23, 2002.
Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. (2000). “Reductive Dechlorination in High Sulfate Ground Water: A Microcosm Study. Second International Conference, Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. Monterey, California, April-May, 2000.
Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. (2000). Microcosm Test for Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents. Soil, Sediment & Groundwater. Feb/Mar p. 13.
(Findlay)Fogel, M., A. Taddeo, and S. Fogel. 1986. Biodegradation of Chlorinated Ethenes by a Methane-Utilizing Mixed Culture. Applied and Environ. Microbiology. vol 51 p 720.
Findlay, M., A.C. Leonard, S.Fogel, W.H. Mitchell. 1995. A laboratory biodegradation test to define in situ potential for PCE transformation. Third International In Situ and On Site Bioreclamation Symposium. Vol 3(8) Microbial Processes for Bioremediation, R.E.Hinchee, Vogel, C.M., and Brockman, F.J.,eds., 223-229. Battelle Press, Columbus OH.
Leahy, M., M. Findlay, S. Fogel. 1989. Biodegradation of Chlorinated Aliphatics by a Methanotrophic Consortium in a Biological Reactor. HMCRI Superfund Conference, Washington, D.C.
Dooley, M., S. Fogel, and M. Findlay. l989. Sequential Anaerobic/Aerobic Biodegradation of Chlorinated Ethenes in an Aquifer Simulator. Am. Soc. for Microbiology. New Orleans.
Fogel, S, M. Findlay, J. Kerr, and S. McMillen. 1998. Incorporation of petroleum carbon into soil organic matter during biodegradation. Bioremediation Journal. 1 (3): 233.
Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. 1997. Fate of petroleum carbon during biodegradation. Presented at the Fourth International In Situ and On-site Bioremediation Sympiosium, New Orleans, Apr 28. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH.
Kanaly, R. Bartha, R, Fogel, S, and M. Findlay. (1977). Biodegradation of 14C benzo(a)pyrene added in crude oil to uncontaminated soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (11): 4511.
Findlay, M., S. Fogel, and A. Taddeo. 1995. "Field Treatment of Coal Tar Contaminated Soil" in Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals. L. Young and C. Cerniglia, eds. John Wiley & Sons.
Nordrum, S., O. Fyock, & M. Findlay. 1992. Treatment of production tank bottom sludge by composting. Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Wash. DC.
Taddeo, A., M. Findlay, M. Danna, S. Fogel. 1989. Field Demonstration of a Forced Aeration Composting Treatment for Coal Tar. HMCRI Superfund Conference, Dec., Washington, D.C.
Fogel, S., M. Findlay, C. Scholl, & M. Warminsky. 1995. Biodegradation and bioavailability of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in soil. in Third International In Situ and On Site Bioreclamation Symposium. Vol 3(7) Bioremediation of Recalcitrant Organics. R.E. Hinchee, Heoppel, R.E., and Anderson, D.B. , eds. 315-322. Battelle Press Columbus, OH.
Findlay, M., S. Fogel, & J. Borovsky. 1993. Bioremediation of a Petroleum-Contaminated Soil from a Crank Case Oil Refining Site. in Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Vol. 4. Amherst MA, E.J.Calabrese, et al, eds. Univ. Mass. Amherst MA.
Chardhuri, I., M. Findlay, et al. 1992. Use of Risk Assessment to Assess the Effectiveness of Bioremediation. in Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, Vol 3, U Mass, Amherst MA.
Fogel, S. and M. Findlay. 1988. Bioremediation Techniques for In-Situ Treatment of soil and Water. 2nd Annual Northeast Underground Storage Tank Management and Hydrocarbon Contaminants Clean-up Conference. Sturbridge, MA. April.
Findlay, M. and S. Fogel. Crude oil biodegradation: Mass balance used to validate gravimetric and GC methods. ibid.